MG 42/59 or 7,62 MG3 milimeter Steyr Daimler Puch di Vienna
When 42 MG comrade for the cartridge from 7,92 x57 milimeter Mauser made its income on the battlefields of the second world war, this automatic weapon rivoluzion˛ the design of the machine-guns not only for its rimarchevoli mechanical solutions, but also for its construction that previewed a great number of parts in printed publication sheet allowing one faster and economic production of the arm.


Beyond to a series of solutions and sagacities already happening to you experiments with on other crews as the system of fast substitution of the cane, version improved of that one used on the Italian machine-gun Breda, MG 42 offered to other interesting technical characteristics a lot which, as an example, a mechanism of feeding of remarkable functionality, than it was later on demonstrated therefore perfect to be adopted on other machine-guns like the American M60. It seems however that the system of closing to seams of MG 42 is derived from a Polish prototype, put to point from Edward Stecke before the conflict and fallen in hand to the Germans in 1939.
During the second world war MG 42 was produced in varied migliaia of exemplary from numerous companies of 3░ the Reich which the Mauserwerke of Berlin, the Steyr Daimler Puch di Vienna, the Waffenfabrik di Suhl and the Johannus Grossfuss Mettal und Locierwaffenfabrick di Doblen. For the report we remember that industrialization of MG 42 was cured from a dependent of this last company, Grunovv engineer to which the semplicitÓ of fabrication of this exceptional arm must of the rest.
In the post-war period the production of an modernized version of MG 42 was undertaken from the Rheinmetall di Dusseldorf on behalf of the German Armed Forces. The arm was comrade for the employment of the cartridge from 7,62 x 51 milimeter and offer commercially like MG 42/59. To notice however that the first post-war MG, said also MG 1 in the German military nomenclature, were employed from the guards of border of the federal Republic in bore 7,92 milimeter Mauser.


Evolution and varying of MG 42/59
From the date of its putting in service in the Bundeswehr like MG 1, the arm has endured some small and successive modifications based on which assume various denominations:
- MG 1A1: draft substantially of one MG 42/59 of the first series converted to bore 7,62 x 51 milimeter by means of the adoption of one new chromium plated cane, organs of sight with calibration modified for the new type of supply and a suddenly leggermente various device.
- MG 1A2: characterized from the castle of new conception, the window of increased expulsion and the shorter throttle of armament. On this version, that it can use recoverable fixed metallic tapes or those to disintegrabili sweaters type US M 13, it is possible to mount a heavier stopper that concurs than to reduce the cadence of shooting they give beyond 1.200 to approximately 800 blows to the minute. E' this version that has been adopted and produced on licence in Italy.
- MG 1A3, practically similar to the MG 1A1 as far as the group cane, but with small modifications to the stopper, the mechanism of feeding and the device suddenly that it has been reinforced.
Parachutist with MG 42/59 Beyond 200.000 exemplary of varying MG 42/59 in its several they have been produced up to now in Germany, where currently the disseminated version more is MG 3, last of the series that differs from the previous versions for some details between which the added one of I raise for the shooting antiaircraft, the shape of the flame damper and the adaptability of the system of feeding to whichever type of tape (fixed and recoverable type DM 1, to disintegrabili sweaters type DM 6 and US M 13).
MG 3 can be employed is with bifoot like accompanyment arm, than with treppiede like medium machine-gun of support, installed on vehicles like single arm of edge or coaxial arm (MG ┴1), beyond that to be equipped of devices of tracking for the shooting diurnal or nocturnal. It goes specified that on it puts into effect them versions of MG 42/59 can be mounts two various types to you of stoppers and shocks-absorber: the V550 stopper, than hung exactly 550 grams, with the relative shock-absorber N type (cadence of shooting from 1.100 to 1.300 blows to the minute); the V950 stopper, heavy 950 grams, with its shock-absorber R type (cadence of shooting from 700 to 900 blows to the minute).
Beyond that from the Bundeswehr, MG 42/59 has been adopted from the Armed Forces of numerous Countries of all the world, the arm has been manufactured on licence also in Italy from the Beretta and the Luigi Franchi, in Spain from the CETME, Portugal from the INDEP, Pakistan from Pakistan Orcinance Factories, in Turkey from the MKE and the former Yugoslavia from the ZCZ, where the model produced from the arsenals of Kragujevac in Serbia, famous like Sarac M 53, is camerato for the ammunition 7,92 bore milimeter Mauser. To notice that MG 42 originates still it is used them in several places of the world.


Operation and employment
Cooled machine-gun to working air and short recoil of the cane with geometric closing to seams, MG 42/59 shoots to open stopper waves to only avoid problems of cock-off (pre-ingition of one cartridge in one overheated room) and in automatic modality (free squall). If the arm comes used mounted on bifoot the practical throw of employment is of 400-500 meters, while if mounted on treppiede this varied throw from 800 to 1.000 meters. To notice that I raise it place in front of the cover of the castle it is graded from 200 to 2.200 meters.

The load of the arm happens by means of the introduction of the tape in the feeding slit (left side) or more simply opening the cover of the castle and supporting the first cartridges of the Particular one of you break off flame and of I raise collapsible mounts to you on MG 42/59 tape directly on the feeding slab (to assess in any case that the first cartridge goes to lean against the detention peg place on the feeding slab). Withdrawing to the maximum the armament throttle the stopper remains open and the arm is ready to the fire. A sure handbook to push-button it is placed on the skillful flank of the arm, exactly over the gun grip (the sure one disinserisce pressing the same push-button from left towards right). In order to unload the arm it is necessary to withdraw the armament throttle completely and to insert the sure one: to raise therefore the cover of the castle and to remove the tape. He is not advisable to leave to return the stopper in closing to empty room. And preferibile to complete this operation saldamente withholding the armament throttle while the trigger is pressed so as to to bring back the stopper in position advanced with a movement it graduates them. It goes emphasized that on the window of expulsion and place a motivating force cover whose opening happens automatically pressing the trigger: when the arm does not come used is advisable to close this cover in order to avoid that bodies strangers or soil penetrate in the mechanism of the arm.
The taking apart on the field of MG 42/59 is extremely simple and works allowing them one fast and easy ordinary maintenance of the arm. In order to take apart the cane it is first of all necessary to arm the stopper. One then pushes to the infuori the handle of taking apart on the right, operation that allows to extract the extremity of the cane outside from its center and concurs of toglieria from the posterior part. Once raised the cover of the castle, removes the locking pin and the feeding system is separated from the arm. After it are assures to you that the stopper is advanced, removes the calciolo same, while with the free hand it is made to ruotare of 1/4 of turn to right or on the left. Fact this, can be extracted the ammortizzatrice motivating force of recovery pressing the containment that is situated to the posterior extremity of the castle. The trigger is pressed finally pulling with the other hand the throttle of the armament undercarriage so as to to carry the stopper on the posterior opening of the castle from where it can be extracted. Ulterior taking aparts are of the all useless for one normal maintenance of the arm.
Arm extremely very conceived, sturdy and reliable also in the most adverse conditions of employment, MG 42/59 is destined to still remain in service in order much time.


Reversible Kit of transformation from cal 7,62 milimeter to cal. 5,56 milimeter
A special thanks from the Bunker Afrikano to the Director of the Pole of Maintenance Light weapons of Cerni Brig.Gen. Maurizio FOOTBALL for the material following post of.

Stopper (fig. 1)
The complete stopper, is formed from one head stopper and a body stopper, constructed in tempered and cemented special steel.
The head stopper has been prepared to new, also remaining to similare to cal. the 7,62 milimeter, while the body stopper is that one of the machine-gun
MG 42/59 opportunely lightened.

FIGURE 1


Goblet (fig. 2)
The goblet, constructed in steel, has the shape of a cap, similar to cal. the 7,62 milimeter, from which it differs essentially for the hole of passage of the bullet, that it is of inferior diameter.

FIGURE 2


Compass guides (fig. 3)
The compass, like the goblet, is constructed in steel, and differs from cal. the 7,62 milimeter for the hole of inferior dimension, as inferior it is intentionally the inner diameter, where lodges the flown one of the cane, in order to prevent the connection with 7,62 cane cal. milimeter

FIGURE 3


Bocchetto of feeding (fig. 4)
The bocchetto of feeding it comes constructed in steel and it differs from mod. the 7,62 milimeter NATO for some dimensions and for the fact that the two you hang us for the guide and the incameramento of the cartridges they are longer.
The bocchetto it comes connected to the castle of the arm, in analogous way to that one of cal. the 7,62 milimeter NATO.

FIGURE 4


Cover of feeding (fig. 5)
On the cover it has been modified the position and the length of the hinge without head of the conveyor of the feeding device; moreover, the particular of the feeding device have been modified all so as to to adapt the step of the tape with cartridge 7,62 to the step of the tape with cartridge 5,56 milimeter NATO.

FIGURE 5


They give to you numerical to comparison

Cal. 5,56 milimeter Cal. 7,62 milimeter

- Total length of the arm 1220 milimeter 1220 milimeter
- Length without soccer 1070 milimeter 1070 milimeter
- Length of the cane with breech 567 milimeter 567 milimeter
- Weight of the arm 11,150 Kg 11,500 Kg
- Weight of the cane 1,845 Kg 1,900 Kg
- Weight of the stopper 0,815 Kg 0,990 Kg
- Weight metallic tape with 250 3,650 blows Kg 7,280 Kg
- Speed begins them 940 m/s 820 m/s
- CeleritÓ of shooting 900 m' 800 m'


Imballaggio, immagazzinamento, trasporto (fig. 6)
Per l'imballaggio, l'immagazzinamento e il trasporto, viene utilizzato un apposito cofano in legno ( fig. 6), nel cui interno, sono ricavate le sedi per l'alloggiamento dei particolari del kit di modifica.
Le sedi sono state dimensionate in modo tale da poter contenere alternativamente i componenti del kit in cal. 5,56 mm NATO o le parti sostituite dal cal. 7,62 mm NATO.
Per facilitÓ di trasporto, il cofano Ŕ stato munito di maniglia, mentre il bloccaggio Ŕ assicurato da due chiusure.

FIGURA 6

Cofano contenente il kit di modifica ( 1005-15-119-6949 )
1) Canna-culatta
2) Canna-culatta di ricambio
3) Bocchetto di alimentazione
4) Coppa
5) Bussola
6) Coperchio alimentazione
7) Testa otturatore
8) Chiusure
9) Maniglia



 
  Esecuzione della trasformazione dell'arma in cal. 5,56 mm NATO

SMONTAGGIO:

Prima di iniziare la trasformazione, assicurarsi che l'arma sia scarica e con l'otturatore chiuso (posizione ordinaria).
Le operazioni che seguono, dovranno essere compiute senza mai forzare o battere sulle parti, nell'ordine e secondo quanto descritto.

Smontaggio coperchio e bocchetto alimentazione
1) Coperchio alimentazione completo
2) Bocchetto alimentazione
3) Perno bloccaggio

Operazioni per lo smontaggio :
a) Tenendo sollevato il coperchio e il bocchetto di alimentazione, sfilare il perno di bloccaggio (3);


Smontaggio calcio
1) Leva sganciamento
2) Calcio
3) Testata
4) Molla recupero
5) Ammortizzatore


b) Tenendo premuta la leva di sganciamento, girare il calcio in senso antiorario, togliere il calcio completo di testata e ammortizzatore e sfilare la molla recupero;


Smontaggio otturatore
1) Otturatore
2) Maniglia carrello armamento


c) Appoggiando il palmo della mano sulla parte posteriore del castello, tirare indietro, con manovra decisa, (nel senso della freccia rossa) la maniglia del carrello d'armamento, afferrare l'otturatore ed estrarlo;


Smontaggio canna
1) Canna
2) Chiavistello di bloccaggio
3) Piastra estrazione canna


d) Sganciare il chiavistello, sollevare la piastra estrazione ed estrarre la canna.


Smontaggio rinforzatore di rinculo
1) Rinforzatore di rinculo
2) Leva arresto
3) Coppa
4) Bussola


e) Tenendo sollevata la leva di arresto, svitare il rinforzatore di rinculo, togliere poi la coppa e la bussola.
Con questa operazione termina la fase di smontaggio dell'arma.

 
  Rimontaggio dell'arma in versione cal. 5,56 mm NATO
Il rimontaggio dell'arma in versione cal. 5,56 mm NATO si effettua utilizzando i componenti del kit di modifica, (contenuti nell'apposito cofano), seguendo le modalitÓ appresso descritte.
AVVERTENZA: Prima di effettuare il rimontaggio e la relativa trasformazione, controllare che i componenti del kit di modifica, rechino la scritta "cal. 5,56 mm NATO".
Quando si riporta l'arma nella sua versione originale di cal 7,62 mm NATO, controllare che i particolari montati sull'arma non rechino la scritta "cal. 5,56 mm NATO".
Porre particolare attenzione alla "Coppa" contenuta nel kit di modifica:
IL FORO PRATICATO NEL SUO ASSE ╚ DI CIRCA 7 mm, PERTANTO NON DEVE ASSOLUTAMENTE ESSERE SCAMBIATA ED UTILIZZATA PER IL CALIBRO 7,62 mm.



Sequenza di montaggio bussola; coppa; rinforzo di rinculo
1) Bussola
2) Coppa
3) Rinforzo di rinculo
4) Leva di arresto
5) Rinforzatore correttamente bloccato dalla leva d'arresto


OPERAZIONI PER IL RIMONTAGGIO
a) Inserire prima la bussola e poi la coppa, sollevare la leva d'arresto ed avvitare fino in fondo il rinforzatore, quindi lasciare che la leva d'arresto si inserisca in una delle tacche presenti nel rinforzatore.


Rimontaggio canna
1) Canna-culatta
2) Chiavistello di bloccaggio
3) Piastra estrazione canna


b) Inserire la canna-culatta nel foro della piastra estrazione canna, guidare la canna nel castello spingendo contemporaneamente verso il basso il chiavistello di bloccaggio, finchŔ lo stesso non viene agganciato al castello.


Rimontaggio otturatore
1) Otturatore
2) Otturatore montato sul castello
3) Grilletto premuto


c) Dopo aver controllato che la sicura sia in posizione di "fuoco", con le dita stringete i due rulli della testa otturatore per posizionarli verso l'interno, guidare poi l'otturatore nel castello e premere il grilletto, per permettere che lo stesso possa essere spinto fino alla battuta;


Rimontaggio molla recupero e calcio completo
1) Molla recupero
2) Testata
3) Calcio

d) Inserire la molla recupero e successivamente il calcio completo. Tenendo il calcio orizzontalmente (figura sopra riferimento 3), spingere fino alla battuta e ruotare in senso orario finchŔ non si avverte l'agganciamento del bottone di bloccaggio;


Rimontaggio coperchio e bocchetto alimentazione
1) Bocchetto alimentazione
2) Coperchio alimentazione completo
3) Perno bloccaggio


e) Inserire il bocchetto e il coperchio nell'apposito alloggiamento, tenendo sollevati gli stessi, inserire e spingere il perno di bloccaggio fino alla battuta.
Con quest'ultima operazione di montaggio, l'arma Ŕ stata trasformata nel cal. 5,56 mm NATO.
AVVERTENZA: La mitragliatrice cal. 5,56 mm NATO, prima di essere impiegata per il funzionamento a "fuoco" deve avere superato favorevolmente la prova di funzionamento in "bianco".

 
  Munizionamento
Il munizionamento previsto per la mitragliatrice MG 42/59 cal. 5,56 mm NATO, Ŕ quello costituito dalle cartucce cal. 5,56 x 45 mm NATO, del tipo SS 109 con alimentazione a nastro, contenuto nell'apposita cassetta portamunizioni.


L'arma pu˛ sparare anche:
- Cartucce perforanti cal. 5,56 mm;
- Cartucce traccianti cal 5,56 mm;
La mitragliatrice MG 42/59 cal. 5,56 mm NATO pu˛ sparare anche cartucce a salve, dotando l'arma dell'apposito rinforzatore di rinculo (in basso riferimento 1).
Le cartucce a salve (in basso riferimento 2) senza proiettile, hanno un bossolo pi¨ lungo di quelle ordinarie il cui collo Ŕ richiuso a forma di stella, ad imitazione della forma del proiettile.
Il volume e le dimensioni sono uguali a quelli della cartuccia ordinaria.



 
   CARATTERISTICHE MG 42/59 7,62 mm

TIPO : Mitragliatrice
CALIBRO : 7,62 mm
PESO : Arma base 10,5 Kg
Bipiede 0,55 Kg
Canna 1,8 Kg
LUNGHEZZA : Con calcio compreso 1.225 mm
Calcio escluso 1.097 mm
Canna 531 mm
ALIMENTAZIONE : Nastro da 50 colpi
VELOCITA' INIZIALE : 820 m/sec
CELERITA' DI TIRO TEORICA : 700-1.300 colpi/min

MG 42/59 7,62 mm